HATEOAS is an abbreviated form of Hypermedia As The Engine Of Application State. It is the approach of the REST application architecture that keeps the RESTful style architecture unique from most other network application architectures. It provides a connection through hypermedia.The Hypermedia term is used for any content that contains links to other forms of media such as text, images, and movies.
Why HATEOAS ?
Whenever we explore any web page in addition to the informative data, it also gives us the links of available actions we can perform. If we think about the typical REST API – it will return the data in response based on the request. So, the thought comes in our mind how it would be if something similar to the web page can happen in REST API so we can explore the API without prior knowledge of the entire API document and URL Structure.
Here, the HATEOAS comes with the approach to build the REST API where the user can dynamically explore the available actions they can perform at runtime from the server. All the User need is the initial URL. REST architectural style lets the developer use hypermedia links in the response contents so that the user can dynamically navigate to the appropriate resource through the hypermedia links. conceptually the same as a web user browsing through web pages by clicking the relevant hyperlinks to achieve a final goal.
Once the Initial URL is loaded, All the Upcoming application state transitions will be held by a user selecting from the choices provided by the server based on the state of an application at that time.
Let’s go through the simple example for the employee object and the response for the Simple REST service and HATEOAS Service for the same API call.
Response from HATEOAS Service
So, in the above example, you can see the HATEOAS service Response with the referral links with the various activities available for the state of an employee at that time like person, membership, and self. If no membership is available for an employee then it will not return the link of membership.
The “rel” stands for the relationship that gives information about how the link relates to the requested object. And “href” gives the action URL that describes how the action can be performed. So, Basically HATEOAS = Data + Links.
With all the above information i am sure you must have the basic idea of the HATEOAS service. If you still have any queries, we are here to help you. Take a tour of the services provided by us and get in touch.
A Whole new look.
On a whole new level.
iOS 13 introduces a bold new look, major updates to the apps you use every day, new ways to help you protect your privacy, and improvements across the entire system that make your iPhone even faster and more delightful to use.
iOS 13 Dark Mode
Dark Mode in iOS 13 is going to be system-wide, meaning it’ll change the hues from bright white and light grey to black and dark gray on all supported apps. That’s going to be a nice feature when you’re using your iPhone at night and want to avoid bright white hues.
It may also save battery life on the OLED-equipped iPhones, from the iPhone X onward.
Apple didn’t talk about this at all, but we know that OLED displays essentially ‘turn off’ pixels when rendering blacks.
Turning on iOS 13 Dark Mode can be done in Control Centre, according to Apple, or you can set it automatically to turn on at night. Night shift finally gets a companion, and a lot of people couldn’t be happier.
iOS 13 features a QuickPath keyboard
With iOS 13, Apple’s default QuickType keyboard will be incorporating swipe-to-type, a popular way of sliding across the keyboard to form words. We’ve used this in prior iOS keyboard extensions like Google’s Gboard and SwiftKey.
You can use the QuickType and QuickPath methods of typing interchangeably, and so far supported languages include English, Simplified Chinese, Spanish, German, French, Italian, and Portuguese is now included.
CAMERA AND PORTRAIT MODE CHANGES
The iOS 13 is going to offer important changes to camera features, starting with enabling you to change the intensity of light in Portrait Mode, which is something we’ve wanted for a while. Portrait mode is also getting a new monochromatic effect called High‑Key Mono.
The Photos gallery is becoming what Apple called “a diary of your life”, with a new tab designed to document your best photos by day, month and year. You’ll also have more pinch controls to zoom in and out of the Photos gallery.
The photo apps will automatically organise photos by year, month and date, which will make it easier for you to find photos.
Live photos and videos play as you scroll.
MAPS GET REVAMPED
iOS 13 Maps looks a lot better, even if everyone likes to hate on it. Will it ever be better than Google Maps? No, probably not. But for people who want Apple’s pre-loaded maps app on iOS 13, it’ll be much better.
There’s way more detail here by way of Apple rebuilding maps from the ground up. There’s more realistic detail for roads, beaches, parks, and buildings, and you can now explore cities with a 3D 360-degree experience.
Favourites were a part of Maps before, but iOS 13 makes these saved locations easier to navigate to with one tap – they appear at the very top of a search menu. Sometimes Google Maps on iOS doesn’t get this right (but does better on Android). That’s one reason to keep Apple Maps installed, even if you’re a Google Maps person.
REMINDERS GETS A BIG OVERHAUL
Of all the built-in apps, Reminders is getting the biggest revamp in iOS 13. It appears to be better organized, and includes shortcuts that make it easier to add reminders.
Big, colour-coded buttons for Today, Scheduled, All and Flagged categories offer you a better oversight of your pressing tasks, while the keyboard when you’re in this app has a top-line Quick Toolbar that acts as a shortcut to easily add times, dates, locations, flags, photos and scanned documents.
Making plans in Messages? Siri will step into suggest reminders that can be created, like a personal assistant who chimes in at all the right times.
MEMOJI GETS MAKEUP, MESSAGES GETS INFO SHARING
Apple is putting more of ‘Me’ in Memoji, allowing one trillion configurations: new hairstyles, headwear, makeup, and piercings to name a few categories. Examples on the WWDC stage showed that these personalised Animoji masks allow for such granular accessory detail as eyeshadow, braces and even AirPods.Memoji Stickers are something entirely new – iOS 13 will bring more iPhone and iPad users into the Memoji fold, True Depth camera or not.
You can customise a Memoji and iOS 13 will automatically create a fun-looking sticker pack that lives in a sub-menu on the keyboard, which you can use in Messages, Mail, and third‑party apps.
You’ll be able to share your personalised Memoji with contacts through iMessages, but only when you grant them access.
IOS 13 DEBUTS NEW ‘FIND MY’ APP
Apple is combining Find My Friends and Find My iPhone in iOS 13, and the union lets you locate your friends and missing gadgets with a faster, easier-to-use interface.
What’s really neat is that it’ll use a crowd-sourced encrypted Bluetooth signal to help you track down devices that aren’t connected to Wi-Fi or cellular. That’s mostly a big help for Macs, but it could also help with an iPhone in rare cases,too.
PRIVACY:SIGN-IN WITH APPLE
Apple is adding a new Sign In with Apple privacy feature, that gives you a convenient and data safe way to sign into apps and websites. Your Apple ID will be able to authenticate your account via Touch ID or Face ID, and developers will see a unique random ID rather than your real info.
Apple can even generate single-use randomized email addresses, so you never have to give your real email address away to an app again. Two-factor authentication is built in to this feature to give you even more security. Apple is taking on Facebook Connect, Google and other platforms that allow you to conveniently sign in to third-party accounts. Sign-in with Apple is poised to protect your privacy more than Facebook and Google do.
What’s neat is that if you don’t want to work over your email to an app developer or website, Apple will create a unique random email for you, and the email will be unique to that site or app.
SIRI FINDS A NEW VOICE
Siri, Apple’s new voice assistant, gets an audio update in iOS 13. Instead of clipped voices, Apple is hoping the new Siri sounds smoother and more natural to your ears. Using AI software (a neural talk-to-speak network, specifically), Siri will speak with fewer gaps and non-human sounding modulations.
iOS 13’s Siri also works better with AirPods, the HomePod, CarPlay and Safari:
Create personalised shortcuts using a new Shortcuts app.
Suggested automations so you can customise your and create a template.
Siri reads messages as soon as they arrive and you can instantly respond.
Share a movie or song with friend with one tap.
Hand off a phone call or music from your iPhone to your HomePod.
CarPlay: Siri smart suggestions work here, like suggesting you open your garage door when you get close to home.
Siri Suggestions comes to the Safari browser.
CARPLAY IN IOS 13
CarPlay in iOS 13 has been overhauled with a new Dashboard view for music, maps, and more, a new Calendar app, and Siri support for third-party navigation and audio apps.
Real time lyric playback for supported tracks is now built into Music, whether you’re using Apple Music streaming or playing from your downloaded library.
Apple’s email app now supports rich fonts, which is nice.
Notes will get a lot more useful in iOS 13 with a better interface and options, where it has been feature-light it will get a great Gallery view and proper folder system with tagging to help you archive better.
As well as getting a click of dark paint with the rest of the Apple apps, Messages got an update to include something a bit more fun (or annoying, depending on your opinion) in Memoji and Animoji integration.
You can add your Memoji or Animoji to your contact card and see your contacts better in the app.Memoji stickers will let you send Bitmoji’s stickers of your face to anyone with Messages, but Apple says it will work with third party messaging apps like WhatsApp. It also said these stickers will work across all iOS devices with an A9 chip or later (iPhone 6s and above).
A couple of new features will come to AirPods if you upgrade to iOS 13. Siri will read you incoming messages and, with Announce Messages, let you reply without using any trigger words. This cool feature will be available for third party messaging apps too.
You’ll also be able to share audio between iOS 13 devices with a tap, playing audio to two pairs of AirPods.
Finally, iOS 13 on iPhone will let you HandOff audio to your HomePod and vice versa. This will work for all audio including phone calls.
More new iOS 13 features
Send call spam straight to voicemail and silence unknown callers.
Mute thread in Mail.
Add attachments to events in Calendar.
Time-synced lyrics when you play music.
Support for 3D Augmented Reality apps like Minecraft Earth, coming to iOS 13 this summer.
Face ID unlocking is now 30 percent faster.
New font support.
Apps launch 2x faster.
Downloads are 50% smaller and updates 60% smaller.
Kotlin is a new programming language from JetBrains and supported by Google for mobile development. Kotlin is a platform independent language. It also provide type safety as an example, the type system helps you avoid null pointer exceptions. It is general purpose programming language with type inference.
Kotlin mainly targets the JVM, but also compiles to Java Script or native code. It is focused on interoperability, safety, clarity, and tooling support. The prime reason for this adoption was its modernity – in terms of its power, flexibility, and democratic approach.
KOTLIN VS JAVA
While Java is almost ruling enterprise world, Kotlin is emerging as most loved programming language among Android developers. Certainly, there should be several reasons behind its popularity over Java.
Certainly, Kotlin’s widespread usage in no time indicates its ability to replace Java, but Java’s ecosystem is quite large and Kotlin is influenced by Java to a greater extent. As of now, it seems unfeasible considering Java’s grown-up community.
Let’s search a little deeper:
One of the reasons why organizations today are adopting Kotlin for their Android app development requirements is because it is an officially supported language to write Android apps. Kotlin code is more safer and more concise than Java code, and that Kotlin and Java files can coexist in Android apps, so that Kotlin is not only useful for new apps, but also for expanding existing Java apps.
This language is seamlessly integrated with Android Studio and this makes it fast.
A Kotlin project can be set up to function in less than 10 minutes, even for a first timer. Kotlin offers many advanced programming features than Java.
Let’s take a look at the comparison of features
USEFUL FEATURE AND BENEFITS OF KOTLIN
Ever since Google made Kotlin as the official language for Android, there is one question we’ve been asked at least one-hundred times!
“Should we move from Java to Kotlin?”
To answer this question we all need to know the benefits of Kotlin. Knowing all the benefits in detail automatically answer the former question. Let’s see some of the useful feature and key benefits of Kotlin which actually made it superior to Java
Kotlin is not a difficult language that is born in academia. Any programmer from OOP domain is familiar with its syntax. It can be understood easily by beginners as well as experienced programmers. It is somewhat different from Java, as there are some reworked constructors or variable declarations.
Kotlin needs 20% less coding compared to Java. Java is a bit outdated, which means every new launch has to support features included in the previous version. This eventually increases the code to write, resulting in absence of layer to layer architecture. If you compare the coding of Java class and Kotlin class, you will find that the one written in Kotlin will be much more compact than the one written in Java.
Here is the example of coding which describe clear difference between length of code of Java vs. Kotlin
ANDROID STUDIO SUPPORT
As said above, Kotlin is developed by JetBrains and it is no surprise that Android Studio has excellent support for Kotlin. Android Studio makes it easier to configure Kotlin in your project, just like opening a few menus. Your IDE will have no problem understanding, compiling and running Kotlin Code, once you have set up Kotlin for Android Studio. After configuring Kotlin for Android Studio, you can convert the entire Java source file into Kotlin file.
While Kotlin was in development since 2011, but its adoption rate skyrocketed after Google’s 2017 I/O event. Kotlin is an open-source and free programming language created by JetBrains.
In fact, according to JetBrains, the adoption rate of Kotlin has become so high that they predict Kotlin will overtake Java for Android App Development this year.
ENHANCED USER EXPERIENCE
Kotlin is not just concise, but it also makes the Android app development process a lot more stable by reducing app crashes and removing bugs. That means, when your Android app is missing these common issues, the user experience automatically gets better.
One of the reasons why Kotlin came into existence is because its parent company JetBrains had some specific requirements from a programming language that they were going to use themselves. It also offers practical value for its parent company which uses it for its own line of products. This also makes them interested in further developing it. With Google support, two innovative companies are working together towards its development.
EXAMPLE OF APP IN KOTLIN
Kotlin has not only put in major efforts in the initial conceptualization of the language as its history suggests, but it is also making significant alterations to it for its future success. Features like the Kotlin Android Extensions, libraries like Anko, continuous library size optimizations, and build times, all of these suggest JetBrains’ commitment towards the further development of Kotlin for Android app development.
Here are the 4 Famous Startups’ Android Apps That Were Either Made Using Kotlin or Migrated from Java to Kotlin
The famous photo-sharing social service decided to use Kotlin and move away from Java in their Android app. They presented the pros and cons of using Kotlin in production at Droidcon NYC 2016. What might seem a little shocking is that Kotlin was used in such a popular app with its massive user base even before Google announced the first-class support for this language.
100,000,000+ downloads from Google Play, average rating 4.6 from 3,922,994 reviews.
Coursera is an educational company providing open online courses conducted by remarkable universities and institutes such as Stanford and Yale. Coursera doesn’t have separate Android and iOS organizations. They only have the concept of mobile and that’s why they decided to start using Kotlin. Kotlin is similar to Swift, a relatively new programming language for iOS development. This results in easier knowledge sharing between engineers, better communication, and more efficient overall development.
5,000,000+ downloads from Google Play, average rating of 4.4 from 88,196 reviews.
Trello is a well-known project-management application, currently owned by Atlassian. For their Android app, the new code is written in Kotlin. However, they’re not going to do a full code conversion of the old codebase. Working with Java and Kotlin at the same time is possible thanks to the great interoperability between the two languages.
5,000,000+ downloads from Google Play, average rating of 4.5 from 68,749 reviews.
Evernote is an app designed for note-taking, organizing, task lists, and archiving. Evernote integrated Kotlin into their Android client. A little more about the technical details of their adventures with Kotlin integration can be found on Evernote’s blog.
100,000,000+ downloads from Google Play, average rating of 4.6 from 1,480,514 reviews.
WRAPPING IT UP
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